The Centre means the four squares d4, d5, e4 and e5. In the Opening of the game, it is normally important to control the Centre. Most chess openings involve placing at least one pawn in the Centre and trying to control the centre with the knights and the bishops. Knights, Bishops and Queens can be much more valuable if they are placed close to the Centre than they are if they are placed near the edge of the board.
Development is the act of getting the pieces off the starting squares and bringing them into the game. The act of developing pieces is vitally important in the early part of the game, as important to a chess player as it is to a football manager to make sure that all of his players find their way out of the changing room and onto the pitch.
Discovery is the ability of one piece to move out of the path of another so that the second piece creates a threat.
Hiarcs is a computer program which analyses chess positions and suggests lines of play.
Mobility is a piece's ability to move freely. It is normally dependant upon pawns and how many of them get in the way of the long-range pieces.
Positional play is play based upon general considerations rather than precise tactical threats. A move is considered to be positional when the decision to put a piece on a particular square is based upon the long term view rather than the short term.
An Open File is a file which does not have any pawns on it. It is usually a good idea to place your rooks on open files because they can quickly move into your opponent's half of the board where they create a lot of threats.
Overloading is a situation where one piece is being asked to do too much work. Look at the following diagram:-
A Passed Pawn is a pawn which cannot be stopped by an enemy pawn, either by capturing or blockading. Look at the following diagram.
Promotion of a Pawn happens when that pawn reaches the other end of the board, so for a White pawn this happens on the 8th rank, for a Black pawn it happens on the first rank. A pawn may promote to a Queen or a Rook or a Bishop or a Knight, even if you already have your original pieces of the type you select. In theory, you could have up to 9 queens on the board at once (if you kept your original queen and promoted every pawn), but you would become very confused! Two queens is normally more than enough to win.
Look at this diagram:-
In many endings, we reach a position in which we cannot make progress because our opponent's king occupies the square we want, but it is the wrong side to move. A Waiting Move is just that - a move which does nothing towards our plan other than change whose turn it is.
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